Summary: This Research Study is the culmination of two years research into popular conspiracy theories of an extraterrestrial presence, clandestine government efforts to keep this information from the public realm; and of the policy implications for elected officials and the general public.
According to a September 2002 Roper poll, two thirds of US citizens don't believe their government is disclosing the truth about an Extra-Terrestrial (ET) presence over the last fifty years in the USA, and 60% supported the Federal government releasing this information. The history of a purported ET presence has generated numerous books, films, articles, web sites and conspiracy theories on the various activities and intentions of ETs, and clandestine efforts by different government agencies to respond to the ET presence. Many of these popular conspiracy theories are often inconsistent in terms of the intentions, activities and impact of the ETs and of the clandestine government organizations created to respond to the ET presence. These conspiracy theories span the spectrum from a belligerent desire by ETs to deprive humanity of its sovereign control of the planet, to a benevolent desire to help humanity solve its myriad social, economic, and environmental problems; and evolve as a species. As far as the involvement of clandestine government agencies are concerned, conspiracy theories range from non-elected government officials intent on arrogating political power through a 'shadow government', to an enlightened effort to gradually prepare the general public for the startling truth concerning the ET presence.
This Research Study is the culmination of two years research into popular conspiracy theories of an extraterrestrial presence, clandestine government efforts to keep this information from the public realm; and of the policy implications for elected officials and the general public. The Study reviews the different primary sources supporting an extraterrestrial presence; the main conspiracy theories or 'ET perspectives' that are generated by these sources; the main proponents of the different 'perspectives'; the moral orientation of the respective ET elements found in each perspective; analyzes the implications for policy makers and the general public; and finally make a number of policy recommendations that support the need for exopolitics and which advance global peace.
About the Author
Dr. Michael E. Salla has held academic appointments in the School of International Service, American University, Washington DC (1996-2001), and the Department of Political Science, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (1994-96). He taught as an adjunct faculty member at George Washington University, Washington DC., in 2002. He is currently researching methods of Transformational Peace as a Researcher in Residence in the Center for Global Peace (2001-2003) and directing the Center's Peace Ambassador Program which uses transformational peace techniques for individual self-empowerment. He has a PhD in Government from the University of Queensland, Australia, and an MA in Philosophy from the University of Melbourne, Australia. He is the author of The Hero's Journey Toward a Second American Century (Greenwood Press, 2002) and author/co-editor of three other books: Essays on Peace (Central Queensland University Press, 1995); Why the Cold War Ended (Greenwood Press, 1995); and Islamic Radicalism, Muslim Nations and the West (1993). He has authored more than seventy articles, chapters, and book reviews on peace, ethnic conflict and conflict resolution. He has conducted research and fieldwork in the ethnic conflicts in East Timor, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Sri Lanka. He has organized a number of international workshops involving mid to high level participants from these conflicts. Further biographical material is on his website at www.american.edu/salla/ .
The Need for Exopolitics: Implications of Extraterrestrial Conspiracy Theories for Policy Makers and Global Peace (1)
According to a September 2002 Roper poll, two thirds of US citizens don't believe their government is disclosing the truth about an Extra-Terrestrial (ET) presence over the last fifty years in the USA, and 60% supported the Federal government releasing this information. (2) In a May 2001 press conference at the National Press Club in Washington DC., twenty 'whistle blowers' from a pool of more than one hundred former US military, government and aviation officials gave verbal testimony and provided physical evidence on their participation in clandestine government projects involving reverse engineering of ET technology, collaborative projects with ETs or suppression of information involving UFO's. (3) The television mini-series produced by Steven Spielberg, Taken, was seen at least in part by 31 million US viewers in the sixteen day period from its first episode on December 2, 2002, and has stimulated speculation that the public is being prepared for official government disclosure on the ET presence in the near future. (4)
The history of the ET presence has generated numerous books, films, articles, web sites and conspiracy theories on the various activities and intentions of ETs, and clandestine efforts by different governments to respond to the ET presence. Many of the popular conspiracy theories emerging out of the burgeoning literature on the ET presence are often inconsistent in terms of the intentions, activities and impact of the ETs and of the clandestine government organizations created to respond to the ET presence. These conspiracy theories span the spectrum from a belligerent desire by ETs to deprive humanity of its sovereign control of the planet, to a benevolent desire to help humanity solve its myriad social, economic, and environmental problems; and evolve as a species. As far as the involvement of clandestine government organizations are concerned, conspiracy theories range from non-elected government officials intent on arrogating political power through a 'shadow government', to an enlightened effort to prepare the general public for the startling truth concerning the ET presence.
The intentions and activities of ETs and of clandestine government organizations created to interface with ETs, if both are found to be true, has important implications for how elected government officials and the general public ought to respond to the whole ET phenomenon as a political problem and a set of policy options. This becomes especially important with the increasing likelihood that official government disclosure of an ET presence will instantly catapult the topic from the shadowy world of conspiracy theories, alternative science, and New Age philosophy, to mainstream public policy. Such disclosure will lead to the birth of a new field of public policy, 'exopolitics', which can be defined as the policy debate over the choices governments and populations need to make in formulating and implementing legislative and policy responses to the presence of ETs in human affairs.
Rather than leaving serious study of this new field of public policy to a hypothetical post-disclosure world, this paper advocates that the majority of public opinion supporting disclosure of government information on ETs; the expanding literature on the ET presence; and the quality of evidence substantiating an ET presence, indicates that exopolitics is already a part of the political landscape. There is a need to outline the main concepts, theories and information sources used in exopolitics as an emerging field of public policy.
In this paper, I will review the sources concerning an ET presence; the main conspiracy theories or 'perspectives' that are generated by these sources; the main proponents of the different 'perspectives'; the supporting evidence for each perspective, the moral orientation of the respective ET elements found in each perspective; and analyze the implications for policy makers and the general public for those perspectives most supported by the evidence. I will conclude with a number of policy recommendations that support the need for exopolitics and which advance global peace
Sources of Information
The literature on the ET presence comes from a diverse array of sources that differ greatly in terms of their reliability, accuracy, and scholarly standards. Virtually all of these sources operate within the political context of an official government policy that denies any ET presence or a systematic cover up of such a presence by clandestine government organizations. This adds to the difficulty of studying the purported ET presence and accuracy of sources supporting the various perspectives on such a presence since official non-disclosure suggests either wholesale misrepresentation or deception by those supporting such perspectives, or a covert government program designed to keep this information from elected public officials and from the general public. If the latter is indeed the case, which the evidence to be presented indicates, then it seems clear that the study of exopolitics will be compounded by officially sponsored acts of disinformation, official denial, and even intimidation by clandestine government organizations. This contextualizes the question of accuracy of sources supporting the ET presence since it cannot be simply assumed that these are honest reports by independent witnesses or former government employees, and not part of an officially sanctioned program of disinformation designed to distract public opinion in whole or in part from the truth about the ET presence.
I will now begin by describing the main sources supporting the ET presence, and which provide the content of the different ET perspectives to be outlined later in this paper. These sources will be grouped together in terms of five categories, and these categories will be presented in the order that would appear most persuasive for the critical reader in a pre-disclosure political environment. These sources will be assigned a ranking in terms of evidentiary strength somewhere in the range: Strong-Moderate-Weak. These rankings are not used to dismiss the relevance of the evidence of an ET presence provided by different sources, but solely to determine what evidence provides the strongest support for an ET presence. These rankings will subsequently be used in analyzing the political relevance of the different perspectives on the ET presence to be examined later.
Category A - Whistle Blowers
The first category of sources of information on an ET presence are reports and testimonies of former government or military officials, and/or civilian aviation personnel who have had first hand experience of UFOs and/or evidence of the ET presence. The most famous UFO incident in the US is the reported crash of an ET occupied saucer shaped craft in Roswell, New Mexico, in 1947. The initial finding of the Army Intelligence officer sent to the site, Major Jesse Marcel, was that debris from the crash was that of a 'flying disk'. A press release was then authorised by the information officer at the Roswell Army Airbase on the morning of July 8. (5) This immediately caused world wide headlines and after Major Marcel was ordered to Washington, DC., Brigadier-General Roger Ramey announced to the world press that Major Marcel was mistaken and the 'flying disc' was an experimental weather balloon. In a subsequent interview years after the incident that boosted claims of a government conspiracy to cover up what happened at Roswell, Major Marcel asserted that he was silenced by superiors, and said, "It was not anything from this Earth. That I'm quite sure of ... Being in intelligence, I was familiar with all materials used in aircraft and in air travel. This was nothing like this. It could not have been." (6)
Over the last five decades since the Roswell crash, there has been a slow but steady stream of former government or military officials willing to come forth and reveal information about the ET presence. It should be pointed out that these former officials have usually taken secrecy oaths not to reveal information about their former duties and run the risk of considerable financial or criminal penalties for violating their oaths, as well as risking reputations and friendships developed over the years of their official service. A prominent whistle blower recently revealing his official activities involving the ET presence is a former senior Pentagon official, Colonel Philip Corso (ret), who served in the Eisenhower administration and later headed the Foreign Technology Desk in the Army's Research and Development department. After more than thirty years of silence, Colonel Corso publically revealed in his 1997 book, The Day After Roswell, that he led a top secret clandestine project to reverse engineer ET technology recovered from the Roswell crash. (7) He wrote that his project successfully released a number of these reverse engineered ET technologies for both the military and civilian sectors. Companies that benefitted from this clandestine project included IBM, Hughes Aircraft, Bell Labs, and Dow Corning. Corso claims that the rapid technological advances over the last 50 years, in fibre optics, integrated circuit chips, night-vision equipment, and super tenacity fibers such as Kevlar body armor, were a direct result of these clandestine projects.
Despite repeated denials of secret government programs to reverse engineer the ET technology recovered at Roswell and other crash scenes, sustained government efforts at suppression of the ET presence continue to be compromised by the disclosure of former military, government and aviation officials that they have participated in these clandestine projects and/or witnessed UFO's and/or even ETs. Dr Steven Greer, director of the Disclosure Project, a non-profit organization dedicated to ending the official secrecy of the ET presence, introduced a select number of these witnesses to the press and general public at a May 2001 Press Conference at the National Press Club in Washington DC. Dr Greer has altogether gathered the testimonies of more than 100 witnesses on tape and video format and made these available for the general public and for a congressional inquiry. (8)
As a source of information on an ET presence, these former government, military and aviation officials have high credibility due to the activities they performed as a part of their official positions. The financial and legal penalties these former officials risk in violating their secrecy oaths, and the possible damage to their reputations and friendships, suggest individuals with high integrity that are disturbed over continued non-disclosure of the ET presence and a hidden government conspiracy to cover this up. To conclude, this category of information can be ranked as 'strong' due to the verifiable credentials of those claiming to have first hand experience of an ET presence, the coherence of their testimonies, and their overall number.
Category B - Witness Reports
The second category of information sources on an ET presence are the testimonies of those who have witnessed ETs/UFOs. and/or been contacted by ETs. These form the bulk of the available literature on the ET presence. These sources are often accompanied by physical evidence in terms of photographs, videos, medical x-rays, or even ET artifacts, and have been so overwhelming in their frequency and scope that the US Airforce launched three consecutive inquiries of these that were designated Operation Sign (1947-48); Operation Grudge (1948-52); and Operation Blue Book (1952-69). (9) Project Blue Book dismissed the overwhelming mass of the evidence given in 12,618 sightings as misidentified aircraft or explainable by natural causes, and left a relatively small proportion of cases, 701, as "unidentified". An independent assessment by the University of Colorado, the Condon Report, recommended terminating Project Blue Book. (10) Rather than ending the matter of UFO visitation this only generated more controversy over what many argued to be the Chairman's bias in ignoring important evidence and recommending termination of the Project. For many, the Condon report was yet another instance of a cleverly orchestrated secret government conspiracy to hide the truth from the American public.
Despite the controversy over termination of the most well known official inquiry into the UFO phenomenon, new witness and contact reports continued to stream in adding to the already impressive amount of material supporting an ET presence. Prominent among those dissatisfied with the termination of Project Blue Book and desiring a more thorough and transparent inquiry was Dr Allen Hynek. (11) Dr Hynek, a prominent astronomer, served as the Astronomical consultant on projects Grudge and Blue Book between 1949-69; and began as a prominent debunker of what he disparaged as the "'psychological postwar craze' for flying saucers that seemed to be sweeping the country and at the naivete and gullibility of our fellow human beings who were being taken in by such obvious 'nonsense'." (12) He subsequently became a powerful advocate of the credibility of the evidence supporting an ET presence; and gave interviews, wrote extensively, and organized scholarly research of the UFO phenomenon as Director of the Center for UFO studies. (13)
Much of the information deriving from individuals claiming to have been contacted/abducted by ET craft has come through the pioneering work of the highly respected Dr John Mack, a faculty member at Harvard Medical School, in treating individuals supposedly suffering the effects of such visitations. Using a variety of therapeutic tools, including hypnosis, Dr Mack found surprising consistency in the disparate and unrelated cases he examined. He has published his findings in a number of books and scholarly journals, which subsequently became the topic of a popular film. (14)
Overall, the second category of information is distinguished by the coherence and consistency of the disparate witness reports and evidence gathered of an ET presence. The researchers and collators of this information are highly credentialed and typically use rigorously developed scientific standards in assessing the evidence. Nevertheless, the degree of subjectivity of their role as collators of the experiences of, and evidence from, individuals who in most instances can report only on an isolated aspect of the ET presence, requires placing this Category slightly below Category A sources in terms of evidentiary strength. This source category will hence be ranked, strong-moderate.
Category C - Remote Viewing
The third category of sources comes from participants in Remote Viewing projects. Remote Viewing is an intelligence gathering technique that was the subject of several government funded projects organized at the Stanford Research Institute from the early 1970's to 1989. (15) Pioneered by researchers Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, Remote Viewing projects trained participants to spatially dislocate a part of their consciousness to designated locations, unknown to the remote viewers, in order to gain intelligence information. (16) Remote viewers were simply given a set of coordinates consisting of randomly generated numerical codes, and instructed to report on what they observed. The apparent success of these projects as an intelligence gathering tool on an ET presence and other topics of interest to various intelligence agencies, led to numerous individuals being trained in the rigorous standards and protocols of this process. A number of these remote viewers subsequently wrote of their experiences in observing the ET presence, and began training others in this process. Among the more prominent of these has been Dr Courtney Brown who has written two books on Remote Viewing that focus on the ET presence, and is attempting to further develop Remote Viewing as a scientifically credible intelligence gathering tool. (17)
Given the novelty and relatively recent emergence of Remote Viewing as an intelligence gathering tool that has a plausible, though controversial, scientific foundation, this category of information may be ranked below the first two in terms of reliability and objectivity. This category therefore can be assigned a ranking of moderate.
Category D - Independent Archeology
A fourth category of sources is the work of archeologists who specialize in translating or interpreting archeological evidence of an historic ET presence. Often led by 'independent archeologists' who operate outside of mainstream archeology based in public institutions and universities, the theories and translations of the extensive public archives and monuments from the ancient world offered by these independent archeologists, continue to attract world wide audiences. Among the more prominent is Graham Hancock, whose Fingerprints of the Gods, proved to be an enormous best seller, with its speculative theories based on forgotten ancient civilizations and astronomical pointers to the homes of distant ET ancestors. (18) Another prominent example is the Sumerian scholar Zechariah Sitchin who translated thousands of ancient Sumerian cuneiform texts that described an ancient ET presence on the planet. (19) While formerly independent, such authors typically produce high quality works that continue to generate controversy among mainstream archeologists. The controversy and subjectivity surrounding these debates of the archeological evidence of an ancient ET presence, requires a low ranking to this category of information. Therefore, evidence in this category will be assigned a ranking of weak-moderate.
Category E - Channeling
The fifth and most controversial source of information on an ET presence are the works of those claiming to be in telepathic communication with different ET races. A majority of these 'channels' have few academic or professional credentials, yet this has not impeded them from gaining international prominence as leaders or spokespersons in the Alternative/New Age movement. In something akin to a burgeoning social movement with global reach and accompany religious devotion, many hundreds of thousands if not millions of supporters attest to the transformative effect of these messages from ETs, and emancipatory value of these messages for all humanity. Many of these channels support the idea that an ET presence has existed on the planet for millennia, and that there exists an officially sanctioned government conspiracy that is global in its reach to keep this presence secret from the general public. In terms of the evidentiary standards for information sources, due to the highly subjective nature of channeled material, this category can be assigned the low ranking of weak.
In sum, the sources of information on an ET presence differ widely in terms of: academic and professional credentials of those making such a case; the physical evidence provided; the subjectivity of those interpreting or providing the evidence; the coherence and consistency of the claims concerning an ET presence; the intentions and activities of ETs, and their moral orientation which typically falls somewhere along the range, benevolent-neutral-malevolent. What follows is an attempt to analyze these different sources of information and the conspiracy theories they generate in terms of four main perspectives on an ET presence. Each of these perspectives will be analyzed in terms of its main themes, principal supporters, evidentiary strength, and moral orientation ascribed to the ET presence.
In the 'Intruder perspective', ETs are depicted as off-world beings who have traveled great interstellar distances and, without announcing themselves or gaining permission, have repeatedly violated US air space and abducted citizens for genetic experiments for purposes yet to be fully determined. In a popular 1987 book by Budd Hopkins titled simply, Intruders, he supports the idea of ETs being intrusive in their manner of collecting and experimenting with genetic material taken from abductees. (20) A rather bellicose presentation of the Intruder perspective is made by Col Philip Corso who describes the ETs as repeatedly violating US airspace, abducting US citizen's for the extraction and manipulation of genetic material and having purposes that pose a direct threat to US national interests. Col Corso advocates that the US needs to use the recovered ET technology for building a new generation of weapons capable of shooting down ETs anywhere around the planet. Indeed, he claims that over the years the US has been very successful in using this reverse engineered technology to shoot down some of these ET craft, but more effort and resources need to be committed for a comprehensive global defensive shield. Testimony provided by witnesses in the Disclosure Project support Corso's view that such a clandestine operation targeting ET flights has been underway for some time, however they depict the ETs as not retaliating to these hostile actions by US military forces. (21)
The ETs recovered from these downed UFO's are commonly described as being approximately four feet tall, with a gray complexion (hence their name 'Grays'), with a large head disproportionate to its small thin and wiry body, with large almond-shaped eyes, a very small mouth, and no organs for sexual reproduction. (22) The 'Grays' home star system is reported as Zeta Reticulum, in the constellation of Orion. Some former officials and/or employees involved in these clandestine projects report to have seen live ETs at various bases thereby giving credence to the reports that a treaty was signed as early as 1954, during the Eisenhower administration, granting rights to ETs to establish joint bases for technological sharing on US soil, and placing strict limits on the biological experimentation the Grays were conducting with US citizens. A source for such a treaty having been signed is former Naval Intelligence officer Bill Cooper who was part of a briefing team for the Commander of the US Pacific Fleet, and is widely cited by conspiracy theorists advocating the Intruder perspective. (23)
Former officials involved in clandestine projects run by different government agencies, claim that the Grays communicate through telepathic thought exchange, and use thought to activate the advanced technology and navigation instruments of their space craft. (24) The idea that telepathy is the standard communication means of ETs gives plausibility to the claims of numerous civilian sources that they have been contacted by ETs and conducted telepathic communication with them. Dr John Mack, in his evaluation of hundreds of patients exhibiting symptoms of ET abduction, claims that many of these communicated through telepathy with the Grays. (25) In reports on the content of the telepathic communication with the Grays, abductees/contactees have reported that the Grays' survival as a species is threatened due to genetic degradation as a result of the repeated use of cloning for reproductive purposes. The Grays say they need to create a hybrid race that integrates the human and Gray genes in order for the continuation of their species. It is claimed that with the creation of this hybrid race, the Grays will somehow be able to transfer their 'essence' or 'consciousness' as individuals into the hybrid thereby perpetuating the continuation of their race.
In sum, the 'Intruder perspective' describes the intentions, abduction activities, genetic experiments, violations of US and allied airspace, and advanced technology of ETs as intrusive. The moral categories used to describe the Gray intruders are primarily neutral since while their activities are clearly described as intrusive, there appears to be few, if any, hostile actions taken against US government forces or the civilian population taken aboard and later released from Gray ETVs (Extraterrestrial Vehicles). The main focus for conspiracy theorists in this perspective are clandestine government agencies desiring to withhold the truth of the ET presence from the general public. The sources of information for this perspective are drawn from all categories, with an emphasis on the Whistleblower and Witness Reports categories. Given the strong evidentiary rankings ascribed to these two source categories, conspiracy theories surrounding the Intruder perspective can be judged to have strong evidentiary support.
This perspective covers conspiracy theories suggesting that an advanced race of ETs with enhanced psychic abilities and superior technology, has been either overtly controlling or covertly manipulating humanity ever since the first human presence on the planet. Elaborating on this theme of ET 'manipulation', Bill Cooper writes: "[t]hroughout our history the Aliens have manipulated and/or ruled the human race through various secret societies, religion, magic, witchcraft, and the occult." (26) It is even claimed that these ETs played a direct role in creating the human species.
The most often cited scholarly source for conspiracy theorists falling into this perspective is the Sumerian scholar Zechariah Sitchin. (27) In his translations of thousands of Sumerian cuneiform texts, Sitchin describes how an ancient ET race, described by the Sumerians as the Anunnaki or as the Nephilim in the Old Testament, created humanity by genetic engineering. Mixing their own DNA with that of the primates then existing on Earth, the Anunnaki created humanity in order to exploit it as a slave race and a natural resource for the Anunnaki. The Anunnaki are described as giants more than 8 feet tall, who have both humanoid and reptilian factions, but the latter could shape shift back and forth between these forms and into others when it so suited them. Sitchin claimed that these are the same beings variously described in the Book of Genesis, the Book of Enoch, and that biblical stories of the Elohim, rebel angels and the Serpent referred to the conflict between different factions of the Anunnaki over how to manage humanity. (28)
Sitchin describes this ET race as having overt control of the human population for millennia, but then largely disappearing from the scene approximately 5000 years ago after an intense factional battle between them. Presumably, the bulk of the Anunnaki left the scene believing it was no longer necessary to exercise direct rule over a humanity that was ready for self-rule. However, a rebel cohort that disagreed, comprised elements of the Reptilian faction who remained behind intent on secretly monitoring and influencing human affairs from deep underground ET bases to demonstrate how unfit humanity was to exercise stewardship over the planet Earth. Such a scenario is consistent with the chronology used by the Egyptian historian Manetho who claimed that prior to the 30 dynasties of human kings that ruled Egypt, there was direct rule by the Gods and the demigods. (29)
The view that remnant Anunnaki ETs are hidden on Earth is supported by Dr Courtney Brown and others who have conducted extensive remote viewing sessions on the presence of ET races on and off the planet. (30) Brown has concluded that a rebel faction of Anunnaki, who he and others describe as Reptilians, is concealed on Earth and it is estranged from the larger body of their race. According to the investigative journalist, Jim Marrs, (31) and the controversial British author, David Icke, (32) this remaining band of Anunnaki, has influenced humanity through human proxies that eventually became the aristocratic families of Europe and other nations. These human elites maintained certain esoteric traditions by which they could maintain contact with those Anunnaki rebels concealed in different locations on Earth. Brown, Marrs and Icke claim that this advanced race covertly influences humanity in order to produce resources that sustain these hidden ETs. (33) The author/channel Alex Collier, claims that the small number of Anunnaki beings at the moment concealed on Earth eagerly await the return of the Anunnaki elite, who they hope will end the secrecy of the Anunnaki history and presence, and reestablish overt Anunnaki control and end the need to rule covertly through unreliable human proxies. (34) Brown describes the Anunnaki remnants as often being in conflict with the ET intruders, the Grays. (35)
In the Stargate Conspiracy, Lynne Pickett and Clive Prince describe the process by which this advanced race of ETs established religion as a control instrument for humanity. (36) They argue that clandestine government agencies are aware of the Anunnaki remnants on Earth and are divided over how to respond to the anticipated return of the Anunnaki elites in the immediate future who may attempt to reestablish overt control over the planet. Brown, Picknett and Prince claim that clandestine government programs are using 'exotic' technologies such as psychotronic weapons activated by thought, enhanced psychic abilities, 'star gates', and even time travel, to militarily prepare for the return of the Anunnaki who possess a technology supposed to be superior to anything reverse engineered from downed Gray space craft. (37)
Conspiracy theories falling into this perspective suggest that humanity needs to counter subversive efforts of the concealed Anunnaki remnants, and prepare for the potential threat posed by the returning Anunnaki who may attempt to deprive humanity of their sovereignty by reestablishing overt control on the basis of global mismanagement by human elites. This perspective suggests those Anunnaki remnants concealed on Earth continue to manipulate international events through human proxies to create the right international environment to influence the decision of their superiors. War, poverty, and environmental collapse are presumed to constitute the favorable climate for the return of the Anunnaki elites who would present themselves as saviors of humanity who would solve these problems and punish human elites responsible for them.
The moral categories used to describe the Anunnaki presence, in contrast to the Gray ET presence, clearly fall into the malevolent range. There are few morally redemptive features of the ET presence concealed on Earth, and suspicion over the intentions of the larger body of Anunnaki presumed to be returning. In contrast to the intruder perspective which focused on a clandestine government conspiracy not to reveal the ET presence, this perspective focuses on an ET conspiracy to subvert and control humanity through human proxies. The primary information sources for conspiracy theories in this perspective are drawn, in order, from the last three categories of Remote Viewing, Independent Archeology, and Channeling. Given the weak to moderate evidentiary strength ascribed to these information sources, a ranking of weak/moderate evidentiary support can be given to this perspective.
According to conspiracy theories that fall into this perspective, ETs are here to help humanity deal with a myriad of political, socioeconomic and environmental problems, but this is not disclosed to the general public by clandestine government agencies. The ETs in this category are described as humanoid in appearance, with a height of 8 feet and above, and often having the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans. (38) Some of the principal supporters of this perspective include Dr Steven Greer who has personally interviewed and analyzed hundreds of whistleblower testimonies on the ET presence that support their benevolent intent and actions; Dr Richard Boylan who has interviewed an extensive number of witnesses of ETs and their craft; and Alfred Webre a former Science adviser to the Carter White House now based at the Stanford Research Institute who is a pioneer in advanced communication techniques with ET races. (39)
According to this perspective, the helper ETs are here to assist humanity in a number of interrelated ways. First, the helper ETs assist humanity in empowering themselves by developing more advanced levels of consciousness whereby humans use a greater proportion of their inherent psychic capacity and spiritual potential. The theme of self-empowerment through spiritual activities such as prayer, meditation and connecting with the energy field of the planet is a recurring theme in descriptions of what the Helper ETs are attempting to teach global humanity. (40) Second, ETs pass down knowledge of advanced technologies and alternative energy sources that are more harmonious with the biosphere which they regard as a living organism which needs to be protected. The early twentieth century inventor, Nikola Tesla, is often cited as one assisted by ETs to develop and disseminate these environmentally friendly technologies. Third, ETs play an important role in encouraging humanity to achieve peaceful resolution of international conflict, and in preventing nuclear proliferation and the use of other destructive weapons. Finally, the helper ETs describe the Milky Way galaxy, and indeed the universe, as being populated by numerous advanced civilizations. (41)
A number of former government and military officials have provided testimony that support this perspective of ETs as helpers. ETs have displayed significant concern for nuclear weapons and even, in some instances, disarmed nuclear weapons. According to Captain Robert Salas in testimony given in December 2000 as part of the Disclosure Project, 16 nuclear armed missiles were simultaneously disarmed in two separate launch facilities after guards reported UFO's hovering over two NORAD facilities in March 1967. (42) Other sources report that during the early years of the Eisenhower administration, a group of ETs secretly met with US government officials appointed to deal with the ET question, and offered to assist with a number of environmental, technological, political and socioeconomic problems, with the sole condition that the US dismantle its nuclear arsenal. (43) When the government officials declined, this group of ETs subsequently withdrew and played no role in the government's clandestine program to reverse engineer ET technology for advanced weaponry. According to the statements from witnesses in the Disclosure Project, a number of 'free energy technologies' are possessed and used by the government, but are not disclosed to the general population. (44) According to Dr Richard Boylan, the B2 stealth bomber operates largely using anti-gravity technology for its propulsion system but this is not disclosed to the general public who believe it relies on conventional fuel sources. (45) It is claimed that these 'helper ETs' would subsequently concentrate their efforts with consciousness raising of the general public; warning of the hazards of nuclear and 'exotic' weapon systems reverse engineered from ET technology; limiting the environmental impact of clandestine projects; encouraging the development of alternatives to using fossil fuel as an energy source; and preparing the general populace for eventual disclosure of the ET presence.
The rapidly growing information of these helper ETs comes from an extensive range of sources. Former military and government 'whistle blowers' have revealed the activities of clandestine government agencies and interests opposed to incorporating ET technology into the public arena. (46) An extensive number of witnesses of these Helper ETs continue to make reports about being physically visited by helper ETs and communicating with them either by both verbal and/or telepathic means, that are collected and closely analyzed by a number of highly credentialed individuals and organizations. (47) Further sources of information are participants in scientific remote viewing projects either conducted under governmental supervision or private organizations; and individuals who claim to be in telepathic communication with these helper ETs and often become popular 'channels' of insights for the general public.
In sum, the Helper ET perspective depicts the ET presence as being clearly benevolent in their moral orientation, and that their intentions and activities aim to assist humanity deal with a range of global issues, including rogue ET elements intent on destabilizing global institutions, the biosphere or abducting the human population. The conspiracy theories that stem from this perspective focus on the efforts of clandestine governmental organizations to suppress information of the presence of the ET helpers, and even contrive a military conflict with ETs in general in order to maintain the status quo. The primary information sources for conspiracy theories in this perspective are drawn from all the categories, with the most persuasive being from the Whistle blower and Witness categories. This suggests strong evidentiary support for this perspective
The fourth perspective can be distinguished from the first three insofar as it relies exclusively on the last two categories of sources - individuals claiming to be in telepathic contact with ETs from higher dimensions and independent archeologists. (48) The main idea advocated by these authors is that many ETs are primarily here to simply observe how humanity resolves its numerous societal and global conflicts at a time when cosmic energy surges in the solar system and the galaxy adds to the intensity of these conflicts. Apparently, humanity represents an elaborate galactic experiment designed to influence the whole galaxy in how it responds to the galaxy wide energy surges.
According, to this perspective, the current period corresponds to the concurrent transition of a number of time cycles revealed by the Mayan Calender. (49) The resulting cyclic transitions lead to an intensification of all the energetic aspects of civilizations which, according to the supporters of this perspective, leads to two likely outcomes. One is that the civilization implodes due to the intensification of all the latent conflicts and dysfunctional energies that come to the surface and prove to be unmanageable. The second outcome is that the energy surges make it possible for a jump in evolution from the 'dimensional reality' that a particular civilization finds itself in, to a higher dimension where more refined powers of creation are possible. The planet Earth, Humanity and the galaxy, it is claimed, has a deadline to prepare for this transition to a higher dimensional or 'density' level at the end of the current 5200 year cycle of the Mayan Calendar in December 2012. (50)
The 'channels' promoting this perspective, suggest that the Watcher ETs knew that due to the history of the galaxy a devastating galactic war would be likely to break out with the forthcoming energy surge. (51) In order to prevent this from happening, the Watcher ETs decided to sponsor a hybrid race that would comprise the diverse genetic pools found in the galaxy. As a result of genetic interbreeding, and physical interventions by differing ET races at appointed times, this race of beings would experience a history that closely mirrored that of the galaxy. If this hybrid race could resolve its internal differences by the time of the energy transition to achieve a comprehensive political unity, then this would provide an example for the rest of the Galaxy for how to proceed in dealing with its own history of galactic conflict. Thus it is claimed that the human race was born as a 'Great Experiment' whose true purpose was known only to the Watcher ETs and the prophetic elite of other ET races. (52)
In sum, the Watcher perspective suggests that a galactic/cosmic conspiracy exists where humanity has been set up to create a solution to a galactic problem not of its own making. The Watcher ETs are represented as merely observing how humanity integrates its diverse heritage and resolves the historic conflicts expected to emerge over the next decade. Rather than directly intervening in human affairs, the ET Watchers are portrayed primarily as observers who over the course of millennia are somehow able to influence or decide which other ET races are allowed to intervene in human affairs. The ET Watchers are depicted as being able to calculate the effects of such interventions in a way that predisposes humanity to arriving at a uniquely human solution to a complex galactic problem.
The moral dimension of this perspective is neutral due to the observational nature of the ETs described, and the long term effort involved in promoting and learning from the 'human experiment'. The primary information sources for this perspective are drawn overwhelmingly from Category E, Channels, thereby suggesting weak evidentiary support for this perspective.
Despite its weak evidentiary support base, an interesting aspect of this perspective is that it integrates the earlier perspectives into what appears to be a coherent conspiracy framework integrating all the other conspiracy theories. One might view this perspective as the 'mother of all conspiracies', where this grand galactic conspiracy by higher dimensional ET races, lays the foundations and rules for all other conspiracies involving ET races and human elites. A summary for all the perspectives examined, and the various conspiracy theories, moral orientations, primary sources and evidentiary support ascribed to each perspective is presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Summary of ET Perspectives and Conspiracy Theories
Perspective Source of Conspiracy ET Moral Orientation Primary Sources
Intruder Clandestine Government Organizations Neutral Whistleblowers
Manipulator Remnant Anunnaki ETs Malevolent Remote Viewers
Helper Clandestine Government Organizations Benevolent Whistleblowers Witnesses
Observer Watcher ETs Neutral Independent Archeology
Implications of Exopolitics for Policy Makers & Global Peace
Much of what has been written so far will predictably have little impact in the policy making community in the event of a continued government policy of non-disclosure of the ET presence and of clandestine government projects set up to deal with different aspects of this presence. Recent signals that the US government and other governments are deliberately leaking information supporting the ET presence, suggests that some form of official disclosure can be predicted in the near future. Numerous authors affirm that the government has been recently pursuing a policy of acclimation, preparing the general public for disclosure of the ET presence. (53) The emergence of hundreds of former government, intelligence and military officials who have become, or are willing to become, 'whistle blowers' on their participation in clandestine projects and/or suppression of information involving ETs gives credence to some form of acclimation program. While discussion of the ET presence might appear premature given official non-disclosure of such a presence, the evidentiary support determined earlier for a variety of perspectives on the ET presence, will assist in making a case for when such a discussion is appropriate.
Of the four perspectives two were found to have weak evidentiary support. The Manipulator perspective had a ranking of weak/moderate evidentiary support which suggests that it would be premature to discuss its policy implications until such time that stronger evidence is found to support this perspective. (54) The fourth perspective, the Watcher, had the weakest evidentiary support among all of the perspectives. Once again, it would be premature to discuss the policy implications of this perspective in the absence of stronger support to validate such an ET presence. (55) I will now review the two perspectives, Intruder and Helper, found to have the strongest evidentiary support, and their implications for policy makers and global peace.
The 'Intruder perspective' has a high degree of evidentiary support and therefore merits close scrutiny in terms of its policy implications. This perspective portrays the ET presence as intrusive and a potential threat, and thereby lends itself to US and allied government policy responses that supports the acquisition and use of reverse engineered ET weaponry in addition to other exotic weapons gained in clandestine projects. This perspective suggests an ongoing military confrontation where the US and allied governments militarily cooperate in ways designed to counter what is perceived as a potential ET threat. While this may encourage greater global political cooperation, it does so on the basis of a clandestine and coordinated military build up that would at best translate into a form of non-belligerence, rather than global peace, which characterized much of the Cold War era. A Cold War therefore prevails where the physical aspects of this conflict with ETs is kept hidden from public awareness, but consumes national resources as those policy makers participating in clandestine government organizations, try to upgrade defense industries to better contain or confront ETs anywhere on the planet in which they appear.
As analysis of this perspective pointed out earlier, intrusiveness can be distinguished from hostility or aggression. There is little evidence that the gray ETs have displayed hostility or aggression to either military forces or the civilian population. It may therefore be concluded that it is premature to support a Cold War type confrontation with this ET race. This suggests that resources devoted to a secret military confrontation need to be restricted and placed under close scrutiny by elected public officials who would be more responsive to a responsible policy debate over how to interact with the Gray ET species.
The third perspective, the Helper, has strong evidentiary support which merits discussion of its implications for policy makers. This perspective poses a difficult challenge for those political leaders since it is based on a policy of disarmament of a range of reverse engineered and exotic weaponry, nuclear weapons, and other destructive weaponry that presumably harm the biosphere. For example, weapons such as extremely long wave (ELF) sonic waves used for sonar tracking in the oceans, presumably to monitor ET activities, cause great harm to marine life. Similarly, the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Project (HAARP) which uses microwaves deflected off the Ionosphere, also causes environmental damage and is argued to be an instrument of mind control. (56) These weapon systems were included in a comprehensive list of space-based weapon system that a congressional representative from Ohio, Dennis Kucinich, introduced for consideration as a bill by the US congress in October 2001. (57) In implementing such a wide-ranging disarmament program as outlined in Kucinich's bill, The Space Preservation Act, policy makers would be confronted with the dilemma of sacrificing what they perceive to be the chief means of a military defense in the case of future conflict with an ET race. The helper ETs suggest that through a radical overhaul of human society to empower individuals, eradicate social and economic inequalities, adopting environmentally sustainable energy sources, and using new technologies for communication and transportation, humanity would ultimately develop more viable form of global defense against ET interference.
The implications for global peace suggested by the ET helper perspective is that primary obstacles to peace are clandestine government projects that use reverse engineered technology and exotic weapons with little regard to the damage caused to the biosphere, the refusal to disclose the true nature and motivations of the ET helper's presence, and government secrecy over the discovery of alternative energy sources that can relieve pressure on the biosphere as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Accordingly, efforts such as the Disclosure Project organized by Dr Stephen Greer focus on the illegal secrecy of these clandestine projects and institutions, and the importance of alternative energy sources for preventing environmental catastrophe and international conflict.
This perspective offers the most far reaching vision of a global peace where humanity comes together to eradicate social, environment and economic problems by responsibly incorporating ET technology. While the third perspective is morally desirable, it poses the greatest challenge to policy makers who have exercised clandestine control over the ET question, and who have an ingrained disposition that military defense is the best insurance against intrusive ET activities and the technological superiority of such races. This suggests that the clandestine decision making processes originally designed as a safeguard against ET interference, need to be reassessed and placed under close scrutiny by elected public officials who would be more responsive to a responsible public debate over how to deal with the difficult question of disarmament and the ET presence.
Policy Recommendations - the Need for Exopolitics and advancing Global Peace
It has been concluded that of the four perspectives comprising a range of conspiracy theories on an ET presence, two have sufficient evidentiary support to be seriously considered by policy makers, and to be further studied. On the basis of evidence supporting these two perspectives, the following five policy recommendations can be made.
First, the quality of evidence substantiating an ET presence and clandestine government cover up has a significant degree of credibility and persuasiveness. This supports the creation a new field of public policy, exopolitics, which would study these two perspectives in the current political climate of an officially sanctioned government policy of non-disclosure of the ET presence. There is therefore a need to outline the main concepts, theories and information sources used in exopolitics as an emerging field of public policy. Furthermore, efforts need to be devoted to analyzing the policy implications of exopolitics in all areas where the ET presence has an impact.
Second, there is a need to promote official government disclosure of an ET presence, and to make more representative the policy making process that has evolved in government responses to such a presence. The magnitude of the issues raised by the ET presence merits a vigorous public debate over the ET presence and how to interact with ET races. This would lead to a more representative decision making process in contrast to what the evidence suggests is a restricted decision making process on the ET presence run by a small number of government officials 'appointed' in a manner which raises serious concerns over their accountability, constitutional status and lack of congressional oversight.
Third, there is a need to reveal the full nature of national security policies undertaken by clandestine government organizations in militarily responding to the ET presence. Evidence provided by a number of sources reveals a clandestine government policy that uses reverse engineered ET weaponry in addition to other exotic weapons gained in clandestine projects to target and bring down ETVs. The evidence suggests that a covert military confrontation has been underway for more than fifty years where the US and other major governments have been secretly cooperating in ways designed to monitor, contain and engage with what is viewed as a potential ET threat. Such a coordinated military response around the globe to an ET presence consumes national resources as clandestine government organizations, try to upgrade defense industries to better contain or confront ETs, while keeping the general public and elected officials ignorant of these military activities.
Fourth, there is a need to release into the public arena all knowledge about alternative energy sources which have a commercial application but are withheld on national security grounds. There is substantial evidence to suggest that reverse engineered ET technologies have been used in the development of energy sources for 'black projects' such as the anti-gravity propulsion system that is claimed to fuel the B2 bomber. Given the environmental impact of the continued use of fossil fuel energy, there is a need to release into the public arena all available technologies that have commercial application.
The final policy recommendation is that there needs to be more effort in determining the extent to which congressional oversight is required for organizations created to deal with the ET presence. There is evidence to suggest that elected public officials including even sitting Presidents, have been denied access to information on the ET presence on the basis of national security considerations. While the argument that national security considerations may at times require public secrecy and even non-disclosure to most elected public officials, there needs to be more effort devoted into working out an effective and constitutional process establishing firm guidelines for such a process.
While the relevance of exopolitics as an emerging field of public policy may justifiably be questioned in a pre-disclosure political environment, the seriousness of the claims and the evidence provided by those conducting exopolitical research, and the policy implications drawn by exopolitical analysis, deserves close attention from academic researchers, policy makers and the general public. Exopolitics provides an opportunity for understanding how humanity can better share and manage the resources of this planet with other species, both terrestrial and extraterrestrial, thereby contributing to a more peaceful and harmonious planet for this and future generations.
1. Many thanks to Dr Peter Weinberger for his suggestions on the title of this paper and for his thoughtful advice on organizing the material. I also thank Art Miller for his help in correcting typographical errors.
2. The Roper Poll, "UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life Americans' Beliefs and Personal Experiences," Prepared for the SCI FI Channel, September 2002, Roper Number: C205-008232. (www.roper.com.) The poll was conducted by among a representative sample of 1,021 adults ages 18 and over. The telephone interviews were conducted from August 23rd through August 25th, 2002.
3. Stephen Greer, Executive Summary of the Disclosure Project (Crozet, VA.: Disclosure Project, April 2001). Website: www.disclosureproject.com He claims that an additional 300 witnesses are also available to give testimony.
4. CNN.Com, "'Taken' takes Sci Fi to new heights," Wednesday, December 18, 2002. http://www.cnn.com/2002/SHOWBIZ/TV/12/18/scifi.taken.ap/
5. For details of the Roswell incident, see Jim Marrs, Alien Agenda: Investigating the Extraterrestrial Presence Among Us (Harper Collins, 1997) 133-37.
6. Marrs, Alien Agenda, p. 138.
7. Corso, The Day After Roswell (Pocket Star, 1997).
8. Stephen Greer, Executive Summary of the Disclosure Project. Website: www.disclosure project.com.
9. The official Airforce website on Project Blue Book is: www.af.mil/news/factsheets/Unidentified_Flying_Objects_a.html
10. Condon, Edward U. and Daniel S. Gillmor (ed.). Final Report of the Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects [Conducted by the University of Colorado Under Contract to the United States Air Force], (New York: Bantam Books, 1968).
11. Allen Hynek, "The Condon report an UFOs," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, XXV(4), 39-42.
12. Hynek, J. Allen: The UFO Experience (Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1972) . Part 1 The UFO Phenomenon . Introduction: An Innocent in UFO, Land . paragraph 4
13. For more information on the Center for UFO studies, go to www.cufos.org
14. His books include, Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens (New York: Ballantine Books, 1994) and Passport to the Cosmos: Human Transformation and Alien Encounters (Three Rivers Press, 2000).
15. In 1990, these intelligence agencies switched their financial support for remote viewing to Science Applications International Corporation. See Courtney Brown, Cosmic Explorers (New York: Signet Publishing, 2000), p. 5.
16. Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff, Mind-Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Ability (London: Jonathan Cape, 1977).
17. Courtney Brown, Cosmic Explorers: Scientific Remote Viewing, Extraterrestrials, and a Message for Mankind (New York, Signet, 2000) .
18. Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods: The Evidence of Earth's Lost Civilization (London: Three Rivers Press, 2000).
19. Zecharia Sitchin, The Earth Chronicles, Books 1-6 (New York: Avon Books)
20. Budd Hopkins, Intruders: The Incredible Visitations at Copley Woods (Ballantine Books, 1987).
21. Executive Summary of the Disclosure Project Briefing Document 73-84. Website: www.disclosureproject.com
22. For a detailed description of the Grays, see Richard Boylan, "The Various Kinds of Star Visitors," http://www.drboylan.com/etraces.html.
23.Milton William Cooper states that he was part of the Intelligence Briefing Team of Admiral Bernard Clarey, Commander in Chief of the United States Pacific Fleet. William Cooper, Beyond a A Pale Horse (Light Technology Publications, 1991). Website: www.williamcooper.com/william.htm. For his discussion of the Treaty, see Cooper, "The Secret Government: The Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12 (Huntington Beach, CA: Manuscript copyright, 1989). Website: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/pages/mj12.html.
24. Corso, The Day After Roswell.
25. John E. Mack, Abduction: Human Encounters with Aliens.
26. Milton Wiliam Cooper, "The Secret Government: The Origin, Identity, and Purpose of MJ-12 (Huntington Beach, CA: Manuscript copyright, 1989). Website: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/pages/mj12.html
27. Zecharia Sitchin, The Earth Chronicles, Books 1-6.
28. The Book of Enoch describes in great detail this conflict. An online version can be found at http://wesley.nnu.edu/noncanon/ot/pseudo/enoch.htm
29. Manetho,, Manetho, tr.,W.G. Waddell (Harvard University Press, 1940).
30. Courtney Brown, Cosmic Explorers.
31. Jim Marrs, Rule By Secrecy (New York: Perennial, 2000).
32. David Icke, The Biggest Secret, 2nd Ed. (Bridge of Love Publications, 1999). www.davidicke.com
33. Rather than mining for material resources such as gold and other precious metals that Sitchin describes as being the initial reason the Annunaki established humanity, Icke claims that this race uses humans as a basic resource supplying hormones derived from emotions such as fear and anger, and using humans as a food source. The Biggest Secret.
34. Alex Collier, Defending Sacred Ground: The Andromedan Compendium , Edited by Val Valerian, January 1997, Revised July 1998. Website: www.lettersfromandromeda.com/
35. Cosmic Explorers, 159-221
36. Lynn Picknett & Clive Prince, The Stargate Conspiracy (New York: Berkley Books, 1999).
37. The term `exotic weapons systems' has been defined to include weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space. Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House), HR 2977 IH, 107th CONGRESS, 1st Session, H. R. 2977. Website: www.fas.org/sgp/congress/2001/hr2977.html
38. For a detailed description of the Nordic ETs, see Richard Boylan, "The Various Kinds of Star Visitors," http://www.drboylan.com/etraces.html.
39. Steven M. Greer, Extraterrestrial Contact : The Evidence and Implications (Crossing Point Publications, 1999). Richard Boylan, Labored Journey To The Stars: An anthology on human responses, governmental, civilian and Native, to extraterrestrial visitation, Rev., 2002. Alfred Lambremont Webre, Exopolitics: A Decade of Contact (Universe Books, 1999). His book is available online at http://www.universebooks.com/
40. See for example, Sheldan Nidle, First Contact (Vancouver: Blue Lodge Press, 2000).
41. See Nidle, First Contact.
42. Executive Summary of the Disclosure Project Briefing Document, 49.
43. See Michael Wolf, Catchers of Heaven: A Trilogy (Dorrance Publishing, 1996); and Bill Cooper, Beyond a Pale Horse.Website: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/pages/mj12.html
44. Greer, Executive Summary, Disclosure Project. Dr Greer further claims that these efforts have been stymied by vested interests opposed to alternative energy sources.
45. Boylan, Close Extraterrestrial Encounters. Website: www.drboylan.com/waregrv2.html
46. See Steven M. Greer, Extraterrestrial Contact : The Evidence and Implications (Crossing Point Publications, 1999).
47. See for example, Richard Boylan and Lee K. Boylan, Close Extraterrestrial Encounters: Positive Experiences With Mysterious Visitors (Wildflower, 1994). Website: www.drboylan.com
48. The most popular 'channels' advocating this perspective include Barbara Marciniak, Family of Light; Robert Shapiro, Shining the Light , Vols 1-6 (Light Technology Publications); Jelaila Starr, We Are the Nibiruans: Return of the 12th Planet (New Leaf Distributing Co., 1999) , and Drunvalo Melchizedek, The Ancient Secret of the Flower of Life, Vol 2 (Light Technology Publications, 2000).
49. One is the end of a Mayan cycle of 5,200 years, another is the end of a solar cycle of 25,920 years corresponding to the precession of the equinoxes. According to John Major Jenkins, the solar cycle corresponds with the time it takes for the plane of our solar system (the ecliptic) to realign itself with the galactic plane. John Major Jenkins, Maya Cosmogenesis 2012, Santa Fe: Bear and Co., 1998. Other authors argue that longer cycles up to as long as 225,000,000 years also come to completion at this time, Clow, The Pleiadian Agenda, 49.
50. The most well known author advocating this timeline is Jose Arguelles, The Mayan Factor, Santa Fe: Bear and Company, 1987.
51. Some of the popular sources for Galactic history include, Lyssa Royal, The Prism of Lyra: An Exploration of Human Galactic Heritage, Rev ed., Royal Priest Research, 1993; Sheldan Nidle, First Contact, and Barbara Marciniak., Family of Light; and Fred Stirling, Kirael: The Great Shift, Oughten House Publication, 1998.
52. This viewpoint is outlined by the popular author/channel Jeleila Starr January 3, 2003, website update. Website:http://www.nibiruancouncil.com/html/january2003update.html
53. Richard Boylan, Labored Journey To The Stars: An anthology on human responses, governmental, civilian and Native, to extraterrestrial visitation, Rev., 2002. http://www.drboylan.com/aclmatn2.html
54. For discussion of this perspective in terms of its policy implications, see Marrs, Rule by Secrecy; and Courtney Brown, Cosmic Explorers .
55. For discussion of this perspective in terms of its policy implications, see Marciniak, Family of Light.
56. Jerry Smith, Haarp: The Ultimate Weapon of the Conspiracy: The Mind-Control Conspiracy Series (Adventures Unlimited Press, 1998).
57. Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House), HR 2977 IH, 107th CONGRESS, 1st Session, H. R. 2977.